R2.1: MAPPING THE ART & SCIENCE of URBAN RESILIENCE
R2.1 is a multi-media and publishing company for the 21st century specialising in urban resilience industry,
knowledge transfer, the art and science of influence, content curation – mapping - case-study methodology.
Author
Suada Kapic
Miran Norderland

Publisher
© FAMA Authors (1999)
/ © R2.1

Language
English and Bosnian / Croatian / Serbian

The Fall of Yugoslavia 1991-1999

… is a 2-sided Poster / Map-Infographic that includes both textual and graphic elements for the purpose of informing, educating and visually communicating a particular event.

Even though we have used digital tools to transcend our mapping methodology, we have opted for a print format - a ‘human-touch’ experience. In the age of Web 2.0 such serious, interesting and educational topic such is the Fall of Yugoslavia 1991-1999 deserves our Analogue-Attention.

CONTEXT

Knowing that the war had different features not only within different countries of former Yugoslavia, but also within each city in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo, we decided to give a graphic presentation of the nature of war in each of these units. It was especially important to explain that all the four wars were encompassed by a single framework.

In 1980, after the death of Josip Broz Tito, the unifier of the New Yugoslavia, the most tolerant communist country in Europe began to collapse.

The centre of the Yugoslav drama oscillated, international and local factors kept changing, some players disappeared and new ones took their place ... The only one who remained on the scene all the time was Slobodan Milosevic. His war machine kept destroying inexorably for more than ten years (his power in Serbia grew since 1987). International and local analysts had predicted that Yugoslav National Army could destroy Yugoslavia unless the state underwent a democratic transition: Slobodan Milosevic used JNA in his Greater Serbia project in a make believe of a civil war so that Serbia could not be accused of an uninvited intervention. Slobodan Milosevic once said: "It is always the strongest that decide where borders are. We believe that Serbs have a legitimate right to live in one country. And there is nothing more to say. As God is my witness, if need be – we are going to fight for this right!"

The war was a necessary mechanism to re-house people and divide the whole country. Ethnically clean regions were not a consequence but the aim of the war. The same applies to the concentration camps, the siege of Sarajevo, massacres, mass crimes in Srebrenica, the siege of Vukovar, burned villages, the destruction of Dubrovnik, the destruction of infrastructure in cities, the rape of women, destruction of cultural and historical monuments, the destruction of religious buildings, the collapse of the economy, the media war, killing and emigration of Albanians in Kosovo ...

Slobodan Milosevic and his regime caused and started four wars in the former Yugoslavia: in 1991 in Slovenia; in 1991 in Croatia, in 1992 in Bosnia and Herzegovina; in 1999 – Grand Finale in Kosovo. The Fall of Yugoslavia Map 1991-1999 is our contribution to documenting and archiving the 1991-1999 events in former Yugoslavia. The Map was created by establishing a chain of cause and effect. When the crisis began in Kosovo, we realized that it was necessary to connect all the events from 1991 to 1999 making it obvious that the conflict in Kosovo was not an isolated event but a consequence of the wars led from 1991 to 1995 and resolved by the Dayton Accords. Particular attention was dedicated to understanding the differences between the wars in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo, and specific features of the types of conflicts in different cities of the former Yugoslavia. We started the Chronology of the Fall of Yugoslavia with Tito's death (1980) although aware that the causes of this conflict reach deeper into the past. This chronology and the records of the war in several Croatian and B&H cities are our contribution to documentation, research and final putting together a picture of what really happened in the former Yugoslavia in the period 1991 to 1999.

The Fall of Yugoslavia 1991-1999 is an educational and informative project intended for an eclectic international audience: schools; academia; journalists; analysts/researchers; international organisations and NGOs; libraries & archives; educational-cultural sectors; visitors to Southeast Europe; and the general public.